Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice
Current Issue : Volume 11, Issue 2, May-August 2017
 
 
1.  INVITED EDITORIAL
Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography to Better understand Glaucoma
Gábor Holló
[Pages No:35-37]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1219 | FREE

ABSTRACT

The term optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) comprises different OCT-based technologies which all allow noninvasive assessment of retinal perfusion, based on moving red blood cells. The main areas where OCTA is currently used are investigation of perfusion and vascular structure of the macular retina (e.g., in macular degenerations and diabetic macular diseases) and the disk and peripapillary retina (in glaucoma and other optic disk diseases). The current editorial provides a brief overview on the potential of OCTA and its use to measure perfusion in the peripapillary retina in glaucoma.

Keywords: Glaucoma, Optical coherence tomography angiography, Optic nerve head, Perfusion, Peripapillary retina.

How to cite this article: Holló G. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography to Better understand Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017;11(2):35-37.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
2.  ORIGINAL REASEARCH
Intravitreal Injections of Bevacizumab: The Impact of Needle Size in Intraocular Pressure and Pain
Mónica Loureiro, Rita Matos, Paula Sepulveda, Dália Meira
[Pages No:38-41]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1220 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: To compare the effect of 30-gauge vs 27-gauge needle size on intraocular pressure (IOP) rise and patients’ pain experience after intravitreal injection (IVI) of bevacizumab.

Materials and methods: Cross-sectional, randomized, doublearmed study. Patients were randomized to IVI with 30-gauge or 27-gauge needle. The IOP was measured pre and post IVI. Patients’ pain was graded using the visual analog scale (VAS).

Results: A total of 54 eyes were included. The IVI caused a significant IOP rise in both groups (p < 0.001). In the 30-gauge group, the mean pre- and postinjection IOP was 16.3 ± 3.6 mm Hg and 24.1 ± 9.0 mm Hg. The corresponding figures in the 27-gauge group were 18.0 ± 2.54 (p = 0.26) and 23.1 ± 7.5 mm Hg (p = 0.66). In the 30-gauge group, the mean VAS pain score was 3.2 ± 2.6 compared to 3.0 ± 2.5 in the 27-gauge group (p = 0.78).

Conclusion: The IVI caused a significant rise in IOP after the injection, independently of the needle size used. The 27-gauge needle coursed with lower postinjection IOP without prejudice of the patient comfort.

Clinical significance: The IVI with 27-gauge may be considered for glaucomatous eyes (higher risk eyes), for which IOP spikes are not recommended.

Keywords: Bevacizumab, Intravitreal injections, Intraocular pressure, Pain, Visual analog scale.

How to cite this article: Loureiro M, Matos R, Sepulveda P, Meira D. Intravitreal Injections of Bevacizumab: The Impact of Needle Size in Intraocular Pressure and Pain. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017;11(2):38-41.

 
3.  ORIGINAL REASEARCH
Outcomes of Ex-PRESS and Trabeculectomy in a Glaucoma Population of African Origin: One Year Results
Youssef Dib Bustros, Robert Fechtner, Albert S Khouri
[Pages No:42-47]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1221 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of Ex-PRESS glaucoma filtration surgery to trabeculectomy in African origin patients.

Materials and methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 56 African American patients undergoing Ex-PRESS glaucoma shunt (E) or trabeculectomy (T) between 2004 and 2012. Data collected included intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma medication use at baseline and postoperative week 1, Month (M) 1, M3, M6, M12. Postoperative interventions including laser suture lysis (LSL) and 5FU injections were analyzed. Complete and qualified success rate, and eyes failing and requiring more surgery were determined. Means, SD, chisquare, and Student’s t-test were performed.

Results: A total of 56 subjects (E 28, T 28) were included in the analysis. There was a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) in IOP and number of glaucoma medications at all time points compared to baseline for both groups. Extent of IOP reduction between groups was not statistically significant at any time point, except postoperative week 1. Mean number of glaucoma medications between groups was not significant, except at 3 months (lower in EXP group). The cumulative number of postoperative interventions within 3 months (LSL and 5-FU) was significantly greater for the TRAB than EXP (3.89 ± 2.4 vs 2.36 ± 2.2, p = 0.007). Success rates were comparable between both groups (Table 2).

Conclusion: Our study is unique in patients of African origin showing statistical significance in the requirement of less postoperative 5-FU injections during the first 3 months following surgery in the Ex-PRESS group vs the trabeculectomy group. The Ex-PRESS shunt was as effective as trabeculectomy in reducing IOP and use of glaucoma medications up to 1 year.

Clinical significance: The possible benefit of this article is to help guiding ophthalmologists to select the type of glaucoma filtration surgery to undergo in an African American patient with glaucoma.

Keywords: African American, Ex-PRESS, Glaucoma,Retrospective study, Trabeculectomy.

How to cite this article: Bustros YD, Fechtner R, Khouri AS. Outcomes of Ex-PRESS and Trabeculectomy in a Glaucoma Population of African Origin: One Year Results. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017;11(2):42-47.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of support: None

 
4.  ORIGINAL REASEARCH
Neovascular Glaucoma: A Retrospective Review from a Tertiary Eye Care Center in Mexico
Gabriel Lazcano-Gomez, Jeffrey R Soohoo, Anne Lynch, Levi N Bonell, Karina Martinez, Mauricio Turati, Roberto Gonzalez-Salinas, Jesus Jimenez-Roman, Malik Y Kahook
[Pages No:48-51]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1222 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: To describe the demographic characteristics, ocular comorbidities, and clinical outcomes of patients with neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and to determine the number of patients who returned for a follow-up eye examination.

Materials and methods: We examined the clinical data of patients with NVG, who attended a glaucoma clinic between July 2010 and November 2014. We collected information on the demographic characteristics of the patients to include the level of education, ocular comorbidities, NVG stage, visual acuity, glaucoma medications, intraocular pressure (IOP), and the number of patients who had a follow-up ocular examination at month 1, 3, 6, and 12.

Results: Data from 350 patients (473 eyes) with NVG were collected. We found 91% of the cohort had proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). We found blindness in both or one eye in 14% and 31% of the cohort respectively. Low vision was found in both or one eye in 14% and 32% of the eyes respectively. By 6 months follow-up, only 32% of the patients were seen at our clinic and by 12 months follow-up, this number decreased to 15%. Around 60% of the patients were on no IOP lowering drugs at the first visit. We found 53% of the cohort had an incomplete elementary school education.

Conclusion: The results suggest that advanced NVG is a significant ocular problem for patients referred to our clinic with just over half of the patients presenting as blind. We also found that several socioeconomic factors that had an important role in the development of PDR and NVG, specifically, educational status.

Clinical significance: We described the characteristics of a large cohort of patients with very advanced NVG, reflecting the fact that the strict control of the underlying disease must be the main goal of the Mexican national health system.

Keywords: Education, Mexico, Neovascular glaucoma, Outcomes, Socioeconomic.

How to cite this article: Lazcano-Gomez G, Soohoo JR, Lynch A, Bonell LN, Martinez K, Turati M, Gonzalez-Salinas R, Jimenez-Roman J, Kahook MY. Neovascular A Retrospective Review from a Tertiary Eye Care Center in Mexico. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017;11(2): 48-51.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None

 
5.  ORIGINAL REASEARCH
Assessment of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Changes by Cirrus High-definition Optical Coherence Tomography in Myopia
Divya Singh, Sanjay K Mishra, Esha Agarwal, Reetika Sharma, Shibal Bhartiya, Tanuj Dada
[Pages No:52-57]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1223 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: To evaluate the relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by Cirrus highdefinition (HD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the axial length and refractive error of the eye.

Materials and methods: A total of 100 eyes of 100 healthy subjects (age 20-34 years with M/F ratio of 57/43), comprising 50 eyes with emmetropia [spherical equivalent (SE) 0 D], 25 eyes with moderate myopia (SE between -4 D and -8 D), and 25 eyes with high myopia (SE between -8 D and -12 D) were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Average and mean clock hour RNFL thicknesses were measured by cirrus HD-OCT and compared between the three groups. Associations between RNFL measurements and axial length and SE were evaluated by linear regression analysis.

Results: The average RNFL measurements were significantly lower in high myopia (78.68 +/- 5.67) and moderate myopia (83.76 +/- 3.44) group compared with emmetropia group (91.26 +/- 2.99), also in the superior and inferior mean clock hours. Significant correlations were evident between RNFL measurements and the SE and axial length. The average RNFL thickness decreased with increasing axial length (r = -0.8115) and negative refractive power (r = 0.8397). Myopia also affected the RNFL thickness distribution. As the axial length increased and the SE decreased, the thickness of the superior, inferior, and nasal peripapillary RNFL decreased.

Conclusion: The axial length/refractive error of the eye affected the average RNFL thickness and the RNFL thickness distribution. Analysis of RNFL thickness in the evaluation of glaucoma should always be interpreted with reference to the refractive status. When interpreting the RNFL thickness of highly myopic patients by OCT, careful attention must be given to the inherently thinner RNFL to avoid a false diagnosis of glaucoma.

Keywords: Emmetropia, Retinal Ner ve Fiber Layer, Spearman’s rho.

How to cite this article: Singh D , Mishra S K, Agarwal E, Sharma R, Bhartiya S, Dada T. Assessment of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Changes by Cirrus High-definition Optical Coherence Tomography in Myopia. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017;11(2):52-57.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
6.  RESEARCH ARTICLE
Hypotony Management through Transconjunctival Scleral Flap Resuturing: Analysis of Surgical Outcomes and Success Predictors
Ana Luiza B Scoralick, Izabela Almeida, Michele Ushida, Diego T Dias, Syril Dorairaj, Tiago S Prata, Fábio N Kanadani
[Pages No:58-62]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1224 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate surgical outcomes and success predictors of transconjunctival scleral flap resuturing for the management of hypotony due to overfiltration following trabeculectomy with mitomycin C.

Materials and methods: Noncomparative, retrospective, interventional case series in which all glaucoma patients from two glaucoma services undergoing transconjunctival scleral flap resuturing between May 2012 and July 2016 were enrolled. Included eyes had to have hypotony [intraocular pressure (IOP) . 6 mm Hg] and/or hypotony maculopathy caused by excessive filtration following trabeculectomy. Key exclusion criteria were wound/bleb leaking and postoperative ocular trauma or infection. Preoperative and postoperative IOP, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus imaging, surgical complications, and any subsequent related events or procedures were recorded. Rates of postsurgical hypotony and/or maculopathy resolution and possible success predictors were investigated.

Results: A total of 22 patients (22 eyes) with a mean age of 56.4 ± 15.2 years were included. Median follow-up was 245 days [interquartilerange (IR); 120.817 days] and mean IOP was increased from 2.9 ± 1.5 mm Hg (1.6 mm Hg) to 8.5 ± 3.1 mm Hg (2.16 mm Hg) at the last follow-up visit (p < 0.01). Approximately 75% of the cases (16 out of 22) had an IOP between 7 and 18 mm Hg at the end of the follow-up period. Median BCVA (log MAR) at last follow-up visit [0.1 (IR; 0.0- 0.3)] was significantly better than preoperative BCVA [0.4 (IR; 0.1- 1.0); p < 0.01]. Hypotony resolved in 81% of the cases, while maculopathy resolution was found in 85% of the cases. Time interval between trabeculectomy and flap resuturing was the only factor significantly associated with patient’s IOP at last follow-up visit (R2 = 0.23; p = 0.036). Success rates (IOP > 6 mm Hg at last follow-up visit) were halved in those left untreated for more than 6 months. No serious adverse event was recorded.

Conclusion: Our findings support the use of transconjunctival scleral flap resuturing as an effective and safe alternative for hypotony management due to overflitration following trabeculectomy. As time interval seems to influence the odds of hypotony resolution, early intervention is recommended.

Keywords: Choroidal detachment, Glaucoma, Hypotony maculopathy, Scleral flap resuturing, Trabeculectomy, Transconjunctival.

How to cite this article: Scoralick ALB, Almeida I, Ushida M, Dias DT, Dorairaj S, Prata TS, Kanadani FN, Hypotony Management through Transconjunctival Scleral Flap Resuturing: Analysis of Surgical Outcomes and Success Predictors. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017;11(2):58-62.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
7.  RESEARCH ARTICLE
Intraocular Pressure Spikes following Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser Capsulotomy: Current Prevalence and Management.
Asaf Achiron
[Pages No:63-66]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1225 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: The current treatment for posterior capsular opacification (PCO), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy, may lead to increased intraocular pressure (IOP). Our aim was to survey routines in the management of IOP spikes and to identify the rate of IOP spikes following prophylactic apraclonidine treatment.

Materials and methods: A survey questionnaire among ophthalmologists and a retrospective registry review was used. Patients were administered apraclonidine 0.5% prior to capsulotomy. The IOP was measured before and 1 hour postprocedure.

Results: A total of 71% of responders (n = 45) routinely prescribe topical IOP-lowering medication and 82% routinely measure IOP before or after capsulotomy. The registry analysis included 87 eyes of 75 patients. Mean IOP decreased by 0.9 ± 3.3 mm Hg (p = 0.01, range: -6 to 10) following capsulotomy. No patient reached IOP values above 21 mm Hg following the procedure, with 3.4 and 1.1% of patients demonstrating an IOP elevation of more than 3 and 5 mm Hg respectively. No association was found between number of laser shots, mean laser power, or comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, or glaucoma status with posttreatment IOP.

Conclusion: Most ophthalmologists surveyed routinely prescribe prophylactic IOP-lowering medication and measure IOP before or after capsulotomy. Mean IOP remained clinically stable following capsulotomy with prophylactic apraclonidine instillation, and no patient reached IOP values above 21 mm Hg. Differences in laser delivery or comorbid conditions were not associated with posttreatment IOP. Considering that no patient demonstrated a clinically significant IOP spike following prophylactic apraclonidine instillation, perhaps routine measurement of IOP following primary Nd:YAG laser may be reserved for high-risk patients only.

Clinical significance: In this work, we showed the prophylactic effect of apraclonidine 0.5% and suggest that measuring IOP after the procedure is necessary only in certain high-risk cases, possibly helping to reduce workload and patient waiting time and improving quality of service.

Keywords: Apraclonidine, Cataract surgery, Intraocular pressure, Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser capsulotomy, Posterior capsular opacification.

How to cite this article: Achiron A. Intraocular Pressure Spikes following Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser Capsulotomy: Current Prevalence and Management in Israel. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017;11(2):63-66.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
8.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Steroid-induced Glaucoma: An Avoidable Irreversible Blindness
Sonia Phulke, Sushmita Kaushik, Savleen Kaur, SS Pandav
[Pages No:67-72]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1226 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Steroids are a group of anti-inflammatory drugs, commonly used to treat ocular and systemic conditions. Unmonitored use of steroids especially in eye drop formulations is common in situations when it is easily available over-the-counter, resulting in undesirable side effects.
Among the ocular side effects, cataract and glaucoma are common. Steroid-induced ocular hypertension was reported in 1950, when long-term use of systemic steroid was shown to increase the intraocular pressure (IOP). Chronic administration of steroids in any form with raised IOP can cause optic neuropathy resulting in steroid-induced glaucoma.
This review describes the pathophysiology and epidemiology of steroid-induced glaucoma, recognition of side effects, and principles of management. The purpose is to familiarize all clinicians with the potential dangers of administering steroids without monitoring the eye and the dangers of irreversible blindness in some instances of habitual self-prescription by patients.

Keywords: Glaucoma, Intraocular pressure, Ocular hypertension, Steroids.

How to cite this article: Phulke S, Kaushik S, Kaur S, Pandav SS. Steroid-induced Glaucoma: An Avoidable Irreversible Blindness. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017;11(2):67-72.

Source of support: Nil

Source of conflict: None

 
9.  CASE REPORT
Glaucoma Surgery in Scleromalacia: Using Endoscopic Cyclophotocoagulation where Conventional Filtration Surgery or Angle Procedures are contraindicated.
Ian AS Rodrigues, Dan Lindfield, Miles R Stanford, Saurabh Goyal
[Pages No:73-75]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1227 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: To describe the surgical management of glaucoma in a patient with severe scleromalacia, and secondary angle closure.

Introduction: The management of glaucoma with coexisting scleromalacia plus secondary angle closure is challenging as most commonly performed incisional glaucoma surgery as well as minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS), which targets the drainage angle are all contraindicated.

Case report: Medically refractory glaucoma in a 60-year-old male with a 30-year history of granulomatosis with polyangiitis resulting in extensive severe scleromalacia, cicatricial lower lid retraction with significant conjunctival exposure, and widespread synechial angle closure from chronic anterior uveitis was managed with combined phacoemulsification cataract surgery, and endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP). Careful postoperative management with intensive immunosuppression was used to successfully prevent complications related to the surgery, which resulted in improved visual acuity, and control of intraocular pressure (IOP).

Conclusion: The ECP is a minimally invasive procedure that targets inflow of aqueous, and can be safely and successfully used to control IOP in challenging patients with complex secondary glaucoma, where the use of traditional incisional surgery, and other MIGS procedures are all contraindicated.

Clinical significance: The choice of surgical treatment for medically refractory glaucoma needs to be selected based on the circumstances of individual patients, and take into consideration the condition of the sclera, conjunctiva and drainage angle, against the safety and efficacy of possible treatments.

Keywords: Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery, Scleromalacia, Secondary angle closure, Secondary glaucoma.

How to cite this article: Rodrigues IAS, Lindfield D, Stanford MR, Goyal S. Glaucoma Surgery in Scleromalacia: Using Endoscopic Cyclophotocoagulation where Conventional Filtration Surgery or Angle Procedures are contraindicated. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017;11(2):73-75.

Source of support: Dan Lindfield has received travel support and honorarium for Endo Optiks, USA.

Conflict of interest: None

 
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